Properly quoting citation rules is an essential part of scientific work. However, the labeling of the original texts is of great importance, because only then can one verify the origin of a statement. There are different ways of quoting to make this identification eventually. The following is what fundamental differences exist between the various types of citation. Here you will learn everything that has to be considered for correct citation.
Quote according to citation rules for the bachelor thesis, master thesis & dissertation
Common to all types of citations is that the citations used, whether by direct or indirect citation as such, are clearly identified for the reader most recently. The main difference is basically the place to put the quotes and the amount of information required for each quote.
Of course, the type of citation used in citation often depends on the subject area. In addition, many universities or institutes have clear rules for quoting in their bachelor thesis or master’s thesis. However, before starting to write your thesis, you should find out if there is a citation guide that sets the required citation method. Of course, we also explain the differences between direct quotation and indirect quotation.
In general, one can always distinguish between the different guides. The former provides the bottom line all the bibliographic information needed to identify the source. This information then appears in the footnotes in the lower part of a page.
The information of the footnote thus does not ultimately differ from those of the bibliography. Especially when editing a bachelor thesis or master’s thesis, one must therefore pay attention to whether both also fit together.
The short quote with a reduced amount of information, in contrast, has meanwhile prevailed over the long citation and is predominantly used. Nonetheless, the information in the bibliography must also fit here.
Quote with footnotes – German citations
The great advantage of long-citation is, of course, that you have all the relevant information at citation at a glance on the same page as the quote. This also saves the reader the additional examination of the bibliography.
The short citation method, on the other hand, only gives basic data of the source, so that the reader can locate it in the bibliography and find all relevant information there. There are different methods and variants for the short citation method, all of which have different advantages and disadvantages.
Overall, the following factors can influence the choice of citation style:
- Interruption of the flow of reading flux
- Regulations (for example, guidelines for formatting)
- Place of publication (for example trade journal)
Among the traditional citation with footnotes is the German citation. Here, a quote is provided with a superscript number. If the reference to a source is made for the first time, the footnote will contain all bibliographic information according to the long citation method.
For all other references to this same source, however, short proofs suffice. Despite bibliographic references to the first reference to a source, a bibliography is usually required at the end of the work . In most German bachelor theses the citation, as expected, follows the German citation method.
Quote in text – Havard citation / APA style
Other citation methods, however, refrain from using references to footnotes. Instead, the quote is marked directly in the text with a subsequent note in parentheses.
The Harvard quotation is one of the short quotations with references in the text. She is also known under the English name Harvard Citation or as Author Year Citation. It only requires the source reference through a short document. This includes the name of the author, the year of publication of the quoted source and, where appropriate, the page number. The latter is necessary for direct quotes.
The complete list of all used sources of the work can be found in the bibliography, which can be found at the end of the thesis. This is required in the Harvard method for shorter work.
However, the APA style, like the Harvard method, is one of the citation types with reference to the text. Nevertheless, there are some differences between the two styles. APA stands for American Psychological Association, which originally developed the style for use in the subjects of psychology and social sciences. Meanwhile, the APA style is also used in many other areas.
The American Psychological Association has issued a comprehensive handbook containing all design guidelines. The most important guidelines for writing scientific papers can be found in abbreviated form in summaries and handouts of many universities (for example, in the summary of APA standards of the Institute of Psychology of the University of Basel).
An advantage of the text-integrated citation methods is the space-saving design compared to the use of footnotes. In addition, the citations in the text can easily be assigned to the source.
However, the simplicity of the style also has the biggest drawback: to get more accurate bibliographic information, the reader has no choice but to consult the bibliography at the end of the paper to fully assess the source.
Application of the citation rules
In addition to the methods mentioned, which are among the most common types of citation, there are still a large number of other citation types and variants that are used in various publication types or specialist areas.
The differences in the use of the German citation as well as the Harvard and APA styles can be seen ultimately by examples in direct comparison. How it works is shown below by way of example “The Little Hobbit” by J.R.R. Tolkien.
The bibliographic references for the bibliography look like this using the citation types mentioned:
German citation: Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel: The Little Hobbit, 7th edition, translated by Walter Scherf, Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag 2002.
Harvard Method: Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel (2002): The Little Hobbit. 7th edition, translated by Walter Scherf, Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag.
APA Style: Tolkien, J.R.R. (2002): The Little Hobbit (7th edition), translated by Walter Scherf. Munich: German paperback publishing house.